Roof protectors: insulating roofing materials
Cold and precipitation will not disturb the residents of the house if its roof is enclosed in a special shell of several insulating layers. Each material has its own role, but their protective properties begin to work only in a single complex. This design extends the life of the roof and the entire house.
Types of roof insulation
When building a residential building, it is important to carefully consider and properly lay the roofing. You need to know that a quality roofing cake should consist of the following types of insulation:
- vapor barrier - protects the insulation from below from getting wet under the influence of vapors rising from the heated room;
- thermal insulation - a porous thick layer that does not allow heated air to escape through the roof, and cold air to penetrate inside;
- sound insulation - absorbs external sounds (from rain, hail and strong gusts of wind) due to its porous structure;
- waterproofing - closes the insulation layer on top, prevents moisture from penetrating into it;
- lightning protection and grounding - a whole system that reduces the electrical voltage of touch; protects the building and electrical appliances from damage during a lightning discharge, and residents from electric shocks.
The roofing cake consists of waterproof, breathable and heat-insulating materials, laid in layers
The purpose of the roof waterproofing is to guarantee the protection of the building from rainwater and melted snow.
A well-made roof waterproofing will not allow the insulation to damp even with a sharp change in temperature during the day. But the roof, without proper protection, constantly leaks.
A gap is left between the waterproofing layer and the final coating for natural ventilation of the roof
There are several types of roof waterproofing:
- pasting - performed with roofing material, glassine or polymer material (glass insulation). These materials are easy to cover the roof of any shape;
Glued waterproofing is suitable for both flat and pitched roofs
- painting - creates a durable film on the surface with a thickness of about 2 mm. Popular types are polyurethane mastic, bituminous mastic and liquid rubber. The mastic adheres to any surface (concrete, iron, wood and plaster) and adheres perfectly to the base;
Paint waterproofing will protect the roof from any material from moisture
- sheet - a durable coating made of steel sheets welded together. Instead, cheaper plastic blanks are sometimes used, which are folded into a single whole using a jet of hot air;
Roofing sheet waterproofing requires joining metal blanks by welding
- film - water-repellent film does not rot and has high elasticity.
The sheet canopy is irreplaceable if the roof slope is exposed to such loads that other materials simply cannot withstand.
Film waterproofing is made of synthetic rubber, plasticized polyvinyl chloride or thermoplastic olefins.
Any type of waterproofing membrane (EPDM, PVC or TPO membrane) is used exclusively on roofs built at an angle. Strips of this material are horizontally mounted under the crate with 15–20 cm overlaps on top of each other, and then glued or welded.
Video: DIY installation of a waterproofing membrane on the roof of an extension
Roof vapor barrier is done to maintain a comfortable microclimate in the room, protect the insulation from fumes and keep warm air inside.
Thanks to the vapor barrier layer, the roof insulation stays dry
In the fight against steam, polyethylene and glassine are most often used - materials sold at an affordable price, but quickly losing their protective properties. Therefore, perforated membrane films with limited vapor permeability are better suited as a vapor barrier.
Perforated film consists of non-woven polypropylene and polymer film: as a vapor barrier, it is of higher quality than plain polyethylene
Perforated films compete only with "breathing" diffusion membranes with one-sided conduction, capable of removing steam from the insulation. And although they are very thin, they can last up to 30 years.
Video: work of a vapor barrier membrane
Thermal insulation material helps to avoid contact of warm indoor air with cold outdoor air.
Most often, the roofing "pie" includes heat-insulating mineral wool slabs, which are laid in two layers between the rafter beams
In most cases, the following are used as roofing insulation:
- mineral wool - rolled or tile: it keeps its shape well, but loses its protective properties when absorbing moisture;
- ecowool - a material that serves as both a heater and a sound insulator;
- glass wool - light, soft, resilient, elastic material; suitable for any roof configuration;
- sawdust - processed with substances that repel rodents.
For the installation of roof insulation, the following methods exist:
- roll - involves the installation of stone, mineral or glass fibers with a substrate protruding along the sides. The material in rolls can be easily laid out on the roof and saves working time;
Rolled roof insulation lasts a long time, subject to the technology of laying in a roofing pie with other insulators
Roofing insulation in slabs is convenient for installation on any surface: both flat and with a different angle of inclination (on slopes, it fits tightly between the legs of the rafter system)
- backfill - it becomes the only possible option when in the supporting structure of the roof the rafter beams are placed at different levels or with an uneven pitch. For backfilling, vermiculite, perlite sand and foam glass are used. A cement-sand screed must be made on top of the backfill insulation;
Perlite sand is used for insulating flat roofs, and on top it is covered with a screed
- blown - a special material based on a fibrous polymer is blown out of an elastic pipeline. This method is hardly used on roofs;
Thermal insulation of the roof by the blowing method is performed in the same way, but this method is used very rarely, it is performed only by specialists.
- printed - a metal mesh with cells of 1.5x1.5 cm is stretched and fixed with pins, by analogy with the cells of a chessboard. Then the mesh is filled with material in several layers;
- sheet - used as the second layer, where a thin layer of insulation is required (placed closer to the inner roof finish).
Insulation sheet on the roof is usually mounted from the inside and has a thickness of about 5 cm
Video: step-by-step instructions for insulating a roof with gluing all insulation layers
The roofs of residential buildings are always equipped with sound-absorbing material. To do this, a layer of soundproofing material that meets certain requirements is included in the structure of the roofing.
Only material with a sound absorption index of at least 0.6 can act as a soundproofing layer in the roofing "pie". This means that foam is unsuitable for muffling the noise of raging weather, in which this indicator barely reaches 0.2.
Dense matter copes with the repulsion of sounds better than too loose matter. Therefore, the ideal noise insulator is to be found among fibrous materials.
Fibrous material has a unique ability to dampen noise
Soundproofing materials include:
- fiberglass - functions well in combination with high-quality vapor barrier;
- cork in a roll - material with a thickness of 2 to 8 mm; serves as both a noise absorber and a heater;
- liquid cork is expensive, but looks great on the roof;
- foil-clad penofol - a sheet of foamed polyethylene is foiled on one or both sides; perfectly retains heat, reflects sounds;
Foil foam on the roof is spread with a shiny side inside the building
- polymer or bitumen mastic - spread directly on the finishing roofing material (corrugated board, metal tile).
To get rid of the pounding rain on the roof, you can use one of the following soundproofing methods:
- cover the roof with soft roofing material with a sound-absorbing effect;
- lay a special sound-absorbing material (for example, polystyrene) on the waterproofing layer or rafter legs;
- include an additional sheet of universal material in the roofing "pie";
Soundproofing material is mounted on the inside of the roof
- treat the inner surface of the roof topcoat with a mixture of varnish and basalt chips. Although this method is very inconvenient during construction;
- make an attic under the roof: it will partially smooth out the noise coming from the roof to the residential part of the house.
Video: soundproofing a metal roof
Lightning protection and grounding
Lightning striking a specific point on the roof can melt material, hot drops of which can cause the coating to ignite. The most dangerous in this sense is a metal roof. An elementary method to secure a metal roof is to ground it. To do this, on each slope, two wires are fixed, enclosed in metal-plastic pipes. The ends of the lightning protection wires are stripped and covered with earth.
Lightning protection wires fixed on the roof must be hidden in metal-plastic pipes
To protect a one-story house, a layer of soil is enough for backfilling wires of 1.5-2 meters. But if the structure is much higher, then it is better to increase the height of the earth layer to 3 or even 5 meters. The thicker the layer of earth, the better.
Special lightning protection can be dispensed with in the case of corrugated board coated with a protective compound for metal insulation. However, it is unreasonable to place high hopes on this method of lightning conduction. Additionally, you can protect the house from fire by laying a layer of non-combustible material between the sheet metal and the wooden crate.
Profiled sheeting with a protective layer can be used on small buildings standing in the lowlands, as well as if there are higher houses nearby with grounding
The guaranteed protection against lightning strikes is provided by the installation of special metal structures - catchers. Their thickness is required - to be 4 times the thickness of the roofing finish. Standard size of the catcher: length not less than 20 cm, section 80x80 mm. One device works well in a 10 m² area. Like metal roofing material, it can melt from a direct lightning strike, but will not cause damage. Cons: the appearance of the roof is distorted.
Lightning catchers are placed next to tall roof objects
A protective mesh will protect the non-metallic roof from lightning. The cells of this device are usually 6x6 or 12x12 meters in size. On gable roofs, it is mounted so that the slopes are separated from each other. From such a grid, several steel rods are drawn along the building, which are then connected to each other in a general outline and buried in the ground around the building. Such a horizontal earthing switch does not require much deepening.
Lightning protection mesh cells must be the same size
If you want to simplify and reduce the cost of lightning protection of a soft roof, then instead of a mesh, a strip lightning rod is used.
The strip lightning rod costs less than the mesh and does not harm the exterior. But in fact, it turns out that it gives the roof weak protection.
The worst of all lightning protection is a flat roof. Any elevation on it attracts electrical discharges. Therefore, lightning rods are installed on such a surface, to which a power electrical cable is connected, aimed at grounding.
Video: installation of a home lightning protection system
So, to get a roof that is resistant to rain and heavy snowfalls, which does not rot, does not let in noise, reliably protects and retains heat, you need to try hard. Therefore, it is important to choose materials as a roof covering, taking into account all their characteristics and features of the region where the building is located.
Seasonal mechanical vibrations caused by freezing of the earth in the cold season is called heaving of the soil.... The study of this process is very important in the design and construction of foundations, since soil movements at the base of a structure with incorrect calculations can be critical for the integrity of structures.
Freezing, the soil begins to grow under the influence of the expansion of the moisture in it. And the higher the water content in the soil, the more likely it is to heave during frosts. It should be borne in mind that due to the variety of soil types, they are subject to mechanical changes in different ways.
Calculations for different types
With a pitched roof, it is easiest to make calculations and installation, this does not require much experience in construction.
First, you need to measure the width of the entire building in centimeters. Use a building level and tape measure for measurements.
After this action, you must divide the resulting value by the second number of the planned aspect ratio.
For example, if you plan to erect a structure with a ratio of 1: 4, then the width of the house (in cm) must be divided by 4, as a result, the optimal height option is obtained with a small error.
You also need to take into account the ratio of the height of the roof to the height of the house.
With a gable roof, it can be a little more difficult as you need to know the exact size of the slope.
For example, the tangent of 40 degrees is 0.8, so half the width of the building is divisible by 0.8.
The hipped roof is gaining popularity today due to its strength, attractive appearance and the ability to easily install doors and windows.
- hip hip. They have the same area, shape and length for all slopes in the structure. They are excellent at withstanding strong winds and are able to withstand high loads
- hip hip. They have a complex design, consisting of two trapezoidal and two triangular slopes (hips). The costs of purchasing materials and building are high, but this design allows you to build an attic with windows under the roof. This type is very vulnerable to winds, so in regions with prevailing winds, additional protection costs will be required.
To calculate the optimal height for a gable roof, you can use the gable formula. Only the width of the house should not be divisible by 2, but by 4.
It is also necessary to calculate the height of the rafter system and the thickness of the boards in it.
The complexity of the calculations is due to a more massive structure, under which supports must be installed. The standard height for such roofs is about 2.5 m, with an error of 0.5 m.
The most difficult for calculations is the mansard roof or hip roof (popularly called "broken"). The design provides two slopes with kinks.
As a rule, such roofs are used if it is planned to make an attic from the attic.
Initially, it is necessary to calculate all the tilt angles. You can use the formula for a gable roof.
It is important to adhere to the following rule: the lower angle should be more than 40 degrees, and the upper one in the region from 15 to 40. Video:
A properly sized ridge and roof height directly affect its appearance, durability and strength.
If you are not sure that you can make the correct calculations yourself, then contact a specialist for help.
This material is a mixture of water, polyester, emulsifiers, diisocyanate. Catalysts are added to this mixture, a chemical reaction occurs and polyurethane foam is obtained. It is a foamy liquid substance that is sprayed onto building structures.
- density - 40-80 kg / m³ (above 50 kg / m³ the insulation becomes moisture resistant)
- thermal conductivity - 0.018-0.027 W / m K
- water absorption up to 0.05.
In private construction, PPU is rarely used, but with large volumes of work, it is a material in demand.
This species is a cross between all of the above. Engineers have tried to combine the designs of stone and metal drills in order to create a convenient and effective multi-tool. The result is a drill with reduced cutting edges and a developed guide pin. More precisely, it is not a spike, but a directing cone, which precedes the edge sinking.
The most relevant application is cladding a brick wall with sheet metal - the drill easily passes through the metal and there is no need to change the tool for drilling the wall for the dowel. Using a metal drill for wood is not always a good idea, since the power consumption and wear of the drill is higher (compared to a wood drill).
It is believed that wood is not suitable for roofing, as it is prone to cracking and decay. However, wooden roofs, created in compliance with modern technologies for protecting wood materials, can last up to 50 years or more. Wooden roofs are lightweight, easy to install. The wood of spruce, oak, larch, beech, etc. was widely used for the manufacture of roofs in the old days. Wooden material for roofing can be chipped, sawn and mosaic. There are several types of wooden roofing: plank, shingle, (from shingle, shingle), splinter (picture)
Consider laying a wooden roof using shingles as an example.
Practical tips and tricks
A few useful tips for those who are thinking about an independent project or are thinking of ordering a set of drawings with the assistance of professional designers:
- the location of the veranda can be anything, but it is worth considering the observance of an important rule - it should be possible to get from the extension into the inner space of the house
- the frame of the structure must be made using a wooden bar or logs, and the walls and roof arranged on top of it must fit snugly against the wall of the main house
- the required percentage of glazing is determined at the level of 60-65%, which provides a comfortable level of natural light, as an addition, you can provide a glass entrance door
- for economical use of space, we advise you to take a closer look at transformable pieces of furniture that are assembled and disassembled depending on the number of people in the room and the situation
- to organize an office building, a gym or a secluded rest room inside an extension, it is recommended to place it on the side of the site so as not to distract the eyes of neighbors or passers-by
- the glazing area in the summer is associated with difficulties in ventilation of the internal space, therefore, when selecting windows, it is necessary to provide for as many opening and even removable models as possible, then in the summer it will be possible to turn a closed veranda into an open one
- to preserve heat in the cold season, a winter building should consist of wood or brick, followed by sheathing from the inside with heat-insulating and decorative materials
- all surfaces of the summer veranda must be thoroughly waterproofed, since the structure does not pose a particular obstacle to the ingress of precipitation
- a mandatory requirement for the project of the summer version of the extension is the slope of the floor towards the site, ensuring timely water flow away from the main site and the foundation foundation.
If you decide to order a project of an extension to a private house - the company "Profremdom" is always at your service. Contact our managers to discuss the current terms of the transaction and call the measurer to the object. The practical experience of the staff guarantees thorough preparatory work and advice to customers on the choice of foundation and structure options.